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Practicality Assessment of a Frugal Nanoparticle Generator: Opening doors to Nano Pharmaceuticals for the researchers and students of underprivileged academic institutions.

Author(s):

Swayamprakash Patel*, Ashish Patel, Mruduka Patel, Umang Shah, Mehul Patel and Nilay Solanki  

Abstract:


Background: Probe sonication and High-speed homogenizer are comparatively costly equipment to fabricate the nanoparticles. Many academic and research institutions cannot afford the procurement and maintenance of such sophisticated equipment. In the present work, a newer idea is conceptualized, which can be adopted by the underprivileged research institutions to fabricate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) in the absence of sophisticated equipment. The current work describes the pilot-level trials of this novel approach. This study represents the preliminary proof-of-concept trials for which the Indian patent application (3508/MUM/2015) is filed.

Method: A frugal piece of equipment was made using a 50 ml centrifuge tube with conical bottom and a piezoelectric mist maker or humidifier. SLNs were prepared by combining the quasi-emulsion solvent evaporation approach and ultrasonic vibration approach. A quasi-emulsion was composed by the dropwise mixing of the organic solvent containing drug & lipid with an aqueous solution containing surfactant under continuous ultrasonic vibration in the piezoelectric chamber. The size of the droplets was significantly reduced due to piezoelectric ultrasonic vibration. Under the provision of mild vacuum and heat generated by vibration, the organic solvent was evaporated, which leaves behind a suspension of SLN. In the present work, albendazole was selected as a model drug. Various trials with Compritol 888 ATO® and Precirol ATO 5® as a lipid carrier and Tween 80 and Poloxamer 188 as a surfactant were performed. Zeta potential of SLNs was improved by the addition of polyelectrolytes like K2SO4 and Na4P2O7.

Result and Conclusion: The ratio of drug to lipid was optimized to 1:4 for the most favorable results. SLN with a minimum Z-average diameter of 98.59 nm, -21 mV zeta potential, and 34.064 % (SD 10.78, n=9) entrapment efficiency were developed using the Precirol ATO 5 ® as a lipid carrier. The proof of concept for this novel approach is established through the development of Albendazole SLNs. This approach must also be evaluated for the development of polymeric nanoparticles and vesicular formulations. The further sophistication of the frugal equipment may allow more control over the quality of SLN. This approach will enable underprivileged researchers to prepare Nanopharmaceuticals. Researchers and students of such institutions can focus on the application of SLN by resolving the constraint of sophisticated equipment with this novel approach. This novel approach should also be tried for polymeric and vesicular nanopharmaceuticals.

Keywords:

Frugal Innovation, Nanoparticle, Piezoelectric, Quasi-Emulsion, Albendazole, SLN

Affiliation:

Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Vadodara, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Vadodara, Meteroic Biopharmaceuticals, Ahmedabad, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Vadodara, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Vadodara, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Vadodara



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