Somya Ranjan Dash and Chanakya Nath Kundu *
The use of hyperthermal temperature to destroy and treat solid cancers is known as oncological thermal ablation. Thermal ablation is studied as a therapeutic strategy for most of the cancers and can be used in the control of local and metastatic diseases in addition to traditional anti-cancer therapies. Photothermal therapy is a minimally invasive therapeutic approach with a promising diagnostic and cancer prevention potential. The excitation of photosensitizer materials like inorganic and organic nanomaterials with NIR (Near-infrared radiation) showed significantly better results as compared to the traditional modes of cancer treatment. The penetration depth of NIR is significantly greater as compared to the UV and Visible light. Photo-excitation of the nanomaterials with NIR efficiently converts light energy into heat energy and eventually enables the cancer cells to die due to heat shock. The addition of a multimodal approach to the treatment and the prevention of thermo-resistant properties of cancer cells in localized as well as distal tumors involves the combination of photothermal agents and chemotherapy. Cancer cell hyperthermic activation prevents DNA repair, cell survival signaling, and eventually induces apoptosis. Simultaneously, the release of antigenic peptides from cancer cells that have died activates the immune cells, which kill the localized and metastatic cancer cells; hence, enabling long-term immunological memory retention. The present review summarizes PTT's functional properties, NIR penetration ability, DNA repair, cellular signaling and immune system modulation effect of hyperthermia. The benefits of using different types of nanomaterials in the PTT application are further explored. In addition, the problems associated with the use of nanomaterials in PTT applications are addressed in this article.
Photothermal therapy, Hyperthermia, DNA damage, Immunity, Apoptosis, Organic and Inorganic nanomaterials
Cancer Biology Division, KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT (deemed to be university), campus-11, Patia, Bhubaneswar-751024, Odisha, Cancer Biology Division, KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT (deemed to be university), campus-11, Patia, Bhubaneswar-751024, Odisha