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Drug delivery using theranostics: an overview about its use, advantages and safety assessment

Author(s):

Bruna Galdorfini Chiari-Andréo, Marina Paiva Abuçafy, Eloísa Berbel Manaia, Bruna Lallo da Silva, Nathalia Cristina Rissi, João Augusto Oshiro-Júnior and Leila Aparecida Chiavacci*  

Abstract:


Following the progress occurred in the modern medicine, advances in diagnosis and treatment tools have been verified. The multifunctional nanomaterials that combine therapeutic and diagnostic functions in a single nanostructured complex are known as "theranostics". To obtain a theranostic it is necessary that in the same particle, usually a nanoparticle, a therapeutic element (such as drugs) might be coupled with an imaging element. There are many kinds of nanoparticles available today that could be used to obtain theranostics, such as: liposomes, ciclodextrins, conjugates and complexes, dendrimers, vesicles, micelles, core–shell particles, microbubbles, and carbon nanotubes. Because these materials interact with and should promote effects in biological systems, their use may overcome health challenges. Considering the novelty and importance of this subject, this paper aims to present general information about theranostics and discuss the safety and presumable toxicity of them. In addition, methodologies that can be used to assess the safety of them are shown. This paper was elaborated based on a literature search about the matter in question. Web of Science, Pubmed and Science Direct were used as main sources of information. The period of publication was not delimited due to the scarcity of information and publications about the subject discussed here. Although many promising theranostic systems have been investigated and can revolutionize the therapy, when designing new these new tools, the researchers need to find alternatives to minimize toxicity of them. The toxicology and biocompatibility of theranostics need to continue to be studied, including clinical studies, aiming to in the future benefit many patients.

Keywords:

theranostic, therapeutics, diagnosis, targeting, safety, toxicity

Affiliation:

Departamento de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade de Araraquara – UNIARA, Araraquara, São Paulo, Department of Drugs and Medicines, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Araraquara, São Paulo, Department of Drugs and Medicines, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Araraquara, São Paulo, Department of Drugs and Medicines, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Araraquara, São Paulo, Department of Drugs and Medicines, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Araraquara, São Paulo, Department of Drugs and Medicines, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Araraquara, São Paulo, Department of Drugs and Medicines, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Araraquara, São Paulo



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