Nur Amirah Binti Ghazali, Mohan Prasath Mani and Saravana Kumar Jaganathan* Pages 280 - 289 ( 10 )
Background: In clinical applications, the treatment for the damaged tissue caused by disease, injury and trauma is done by autograft and allograft which replace the damaged organs. But, these treatments possess certain disadvantages like limited donor supply, being very expensive and infectious. Recently, the tissue engineering has emerged as a promising and alternate technique for repairing the damaged tissue without any replacement of the damaged organ. The tissue engineering technique comprises scaffolds made of biomaterials which could be able to adhere and proliferate the cells for new tissue growth.
Objective: In this present study, polyurethane (PU) nanofiber incorporated with synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnNPs) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) was successfully fabricated for tissue engineering applications using single stage electrospinning technique.
Methodology: The ZnNPs nanoparticles were obtained through green synthesis by precipitation method using Coriandrum sativum (CS) aqueous leaf extracts. The prepared nanoparticles were examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy absorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The obtained ZnNPs from green synthesis was further incorporated into the PU matrix along with VCO using electrospinning technique. The fabricated nanocomposites were characterized through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier- transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and contact angle measurements.
Results: The obtained nanoparticles using Coriandrum sativum (CS) aqueous leaf extracts exhibited absorption peak in the range of 285- 300 nm as revealed in the UV-VIS spectroscopy absorption. Further, the size of synthesized ZnNPs nanoparticles obtained from 40%, 80% and 100% CS extract was found to be 740 ± 53 nm, 542 ± 47 nm and 487 ± 61 nm using Image J. Moreover, Fourier- transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the presence of zinc oxide. In the electrospun PU-VCO-ZnNPs membranes, the addition of ZnNPs and VCO into the polymer matrix reduced the fiber diameter in the range of 687 ± 208 nm and also pore diameter in the range of 1069 ± 259 nm compared to pure PU (Fiber diameter- 742 ± 185 nm and Pore diameter- 1382 ± 219 nm). FTIR revealed the existence of zinc oxide and VCO in PU by the formation of hydrogen bond. Further, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) also confirmed the presence of zinc oxide by showing 0.274% weight percentage in the PU matrix. Moreover, the contact angle measurements revealed the increasing hydrophobic nature of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites (91.6 ± 1.78°) compared to pure PU (80.9 ± 3.15°).
Conclusion: The developed PU-VCO-ZnP nanocomposites with enhanced physiochemical characteristics might be suitable for the tissue engineering applications.
Green synthesis, precipitation method, PU-VCO-ZnNPs membranes, electrospinning, physiochemical characteristics, tissue engineering applications.
Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300 Skudai, Johor, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300 Skudai, Johor, IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300 Skudai, Johor